By James H. Green
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Additional resources for Access Technologies: DSL and Cable
If a router doesn’t deliver in time or if it encounters congestion and can’t deliver the packet, it simply discards it. Furthermore, IP doesn’t check for errors. In data communications, a packet with a single bit error is worse than no packet at all. This need for purity, incidentally, is true only for data packets and not for other types of packets such as voice. To turn IP into a reliable network, we need another protocol, and this is where TCP comes into the picture. TCP sets up a logical path with its peer at the other end of the connection.
The ILECs have used 58 Access Technologies: DSL and Cable HDSL for years to provide T1/E1 service over two twistedpair wires up to 12,000 ft (4,000 m) long. This enables them to avoid the regenerators that T1/E1 requires, which are expensive and difficult to install on many loops. Terminating equipment is installed both in the central office and at the subscriber’s premises. Unlike other DSL versions, HDSL does not support regular telephone service on a cable pair. SDSL SDSL (also known as symmetrical DSL) serves the same market as HDSL, with two important functional differences.
Trunks are almost always four-wire because they are provisioned on multiplex equipment that inherently has separate transmit and receive paths. Local loops were designed as two-wire to conserve cable. Many older switches were also two-wire, but all digital switches are four-wire, meaning the transmit and receive directions of a session are separated. A device known as a hybrid does the four-wire-to-two-wire conversion. A hybrid works on the principle of balancing the impedances of the two-wire and four-wire loops.
Access Technologies: DSL and Cable by James H. Green