Read e-book online A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban PDF

By George F. Chadwick

ISBN-10: 0080206255

ISBN-13: 9780080206257

ISBN-10: 0080206263

ISBN-13: 9780080206264

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Extra info for A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process

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1955, quoted by Attneave, 1959). Whilst driving a car, the overtaking manoeuvre involves the estimation of the relative velocities of three cars from t A "bit" has been defined previously in Chapter 1 . 26 A Systems View of Planning optical angular measurements and their projections to correct future positions, a process which may take about 3 seconds, and in the end is used as a basis for a 1 bit decision: to overtake or not. Personal memory probably has a very large capacity, and working from the known capacity of people to remember large numbers of words in a specific relationship, as in plays or other literature, a reasonable lower limit might be 50 million bits although the possible upper limit for a lifetime's accumulation of information might be as much as 300,000 million bits (Griffith, 1966).

We must bear this fundamental issue in mind when trying to apply system concepts to the field of town and regional planning. The same point is well made by Ross Ashby in his Introduction to Cybernetics (pages 65-68), with his "diagram of immediate effects" (fig. 4/20/1) showing the effect of a rising threshold of response on a total system, which become partitioned into separate subsystems under this influence: the "degree of wholeness" of the system changes. Ashby's "threshold" and the "resolution level", though expressed in different ways, are fundamentally the same point: we define a system in accordance with our interests, and we can always lower or raise the résolution to define a "bigger" system or a "smaller" one (except when we are concerned with the largest or the smallest system of all).

Whilst driving a car, the overtaking manoeuvre involves the estimation of the relative velocities of three cars from t A "bit" has been defined previously in Chapter 1 . 26 A Systems View of Planning optical angular measurements and their projections to correct future positions, a process which may take about 3 seconds, and in the end is used as a basis for a 1 bit decision: to overtake or not. Personal memory probably has a very large capacity, and working from the known capacity of people to remember large numbers of words in a specific relationship, as in plays or other literature, a reasonable lower limit might be 50 million bits although the possible upper limit for a lifetime's accumulation of information might be as much as 300,000 million bits (Griffith, 1966).

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A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process by George F. Chadwick


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