By Gordon Kerr
From the coronation of Charlemagne in 800 to the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007, an obtainable historical past of the folk, rules, associations, and occasions that experience formed Europe over the last 1,200 years
This fascinating history for beginners provides a coherent map of the jumbled historical past of Europe and the eu concept that has led up to this aspect. A continent of numerous disparate peoples, races, and countries, ruled by means of various rules, philosophies, religions, and attitudes, Europe still has a standard thread of heritage working via it, sewing the lands and peoples of its prior and current into one cloth and held jointly through the continent’s nice associations: the Church of Rome, the Holy Roman Empire, the eu Union, person monarchies, exchange businesses, and social movements. However, humans have always harbored aspirations to make this big territory one. The Romans got here shut and some centuries later, the principles for an excellent eu nation have been laid with the construction of the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon overreached himself in trying to create a European-wide Empire—as did Adolf Hitler. Now, Europe is as shut because it ever has been to being one entity, but Europeans nonetheless dangle to national independence.
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Additional info for A Short History of Europe: From Charlemagne to the Treaty of Lisbon
Farreum) claimed that a certain sacrificial cake called a farreum was made from far. 41 Serv. Aen. 103. 42 Serv. Aen. 374. v. in pelle lanata), although not describing confarreatio, claimed that all brides sit on sheepskins at their weddings, explaining that they do so because they are following the example of the ancients or because it symbolizes the bride’s capacity for wool-working. Plutarch QR 31 also claimed all Roman brides had a sheepskin laid out for them when entering (their new homes, presumably).
Of course jurists could assume a common knowledge regarding physical maturity we nowadays lack: when Ulpian (in a section in the Digest on legal terminology) makes clear that a virgo viripotens (“virgin ready for a husband”) should be termed a mulier (“a woman”), he can assume his audience understands what level of physical maturity viripotens signifies (D. 13). By the end of the Republic, the minimum age for the female partner was twelve, and for the male, fourteen (Corbett 1930: 51, Treggiari 1991: 39–43) (D.
None of the wedding ceremonies preserved in Roman literature from 200 BCE to 400 CE are recognizable as confarreatio, and none mentioned far. v. farreum) before the bride; it 37 Treggiari (1991: 24) reminds us of the exception of humorous scenarios in which the sacrality of confarreatio is used for comedic effect, as in Apuleius’ use of the word in the Metamorphoses to mean the union of a god and a woman (Met. 26) or intercourse between an ass and a condemned woman (Met. 29). Also see Linderski 1986.
A Short History of Europe: From Charlemagne to the Treaty of Lisbon by Gordon Kerr