By Ranko Matasović
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Additional resources for A Short Grammar of Kabardian
Neg. -neg. "I cannot give you to him" (the verb is intransitive, so the order of the prefixes for 1sg. and 3sg. arəsa-r ya-šx (note the 3sg. arəsa-r xw-aw-šx (note the lack of the 3sg. e. if the preceding example should be rendered as "it is possible to the sick man to eat the apple". 54 This correlation between (at least some) potentials and intransitives seems to be an areal feature in the Caucasus. Cp. Hewitt 2004: 181ff. for similar examples from Mingrelian, Ingush, Khinalug, and Abkhaz. ) 1957: 93.
G. it cannot be passivized. 51 Applicatives (version prefixes) exist in the other NW Caucasian languages. ) calls the prefixes expressing version in NW Caucasian "relational particles" (cp. Abkhaz -z(ə)- which corresponds to Kab. -xw ə-) to distinguish them from version prefixes in Kartvelian, where a somewhat more complex system exists. 52 Kumaxov 1971: 276. Cf. the similar "adversative" prefix ca- in Abkhaz. " II. CONJUNCTIVITY (COMITATIVE) The prefix expressing conjunctivity (Rus. -af. -af. -af.
34 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian eat", thaśən "to wash (something)" and thaśan "to wash", xən "to reap (something)" and xan "to reap", śəpən "to collect (something)" and śəpan "to collect", ś'ən "to do" and ś'an "to know", ł'ən "to kill" and ł'an "to die"39. g. the suffix -hə-, cf. q'afa-n "to dance" (intransitive), q'afə-hə-n "to dance (a dance around something)" (transitive). g. the verbs hə-n "to carry" and ś'ə-n "to do" are always transitive. If we assume that the basic form of the verb is the one with final stem morpheme -a-, while the form with the morpheme -ə- is derived, then a large majority of Kabardian languages are intransitive.
A Short Grammar of Kabardian by Ranko Matasović