By Heidi Anna Johnson
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Additional info for A Grammar of San Miguel Chimalapa Zoque
The Spanish invasion and Zoque grammar The Spanish invasion of Mexico began in 1519. The Oaxacan Zoques were isolated in their vast, high, Chimalapan wilderness, and perhaps suffered less intrusion than lowland groups of indigenous people. However, every level of Zoque grammar has been affected by contact with Spanish to some degree. Borrowing from Spanish into Zoque appears to range from category (2) to category (3), on the borrowing scale of Thomason and Kaufman (1988:74-75). Content words, of course, have been and continue to be borrowed freely.
3), gives the set of nonnative consonants that appear in words in the MIG Zoque lexicon. Some of these appear in Zoque words, derived by regular phonological processes (discussed in the subsections below); others were borrowed along with Spanish loan words. 1. 2. 3. 2). Voiced consonants appear (a) at the beginning of pronouns, deictics, and a few other function words, and (b) word-internally after the operation of a voicing rule. 6) and in some loan words. 4), and Spanish loan words. /´/ in MIG Zoque is a mid back unrounded vowel.
Where there is a Zoque word, it tends to be preferred. I seldom see the word mañana, 'morning', in place of /aNnamcu/, for example. So far we have a case of category (2) borrowing: phonology and morphology restricted to the loan words with which they are associated, and function words that had no native equivalents. Category (3) borrowing includes adpositions and a more extensive set of function words. 7). The Zoque way to say this would employ the applicative suffix -hay to reference the recipient.
A Grammar of San Miguel Chimalapa Zoque by Heidi Anna Johnson