By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough experiences ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar reports the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse beneficial properties of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o shows many strange typological gains, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our knowing of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan relatives of languages in ancient and areal point of view.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
Phonological processes in derived words c. d. e. f. g. h. i. k. l. m. n. 4) and are attested only rarely with non-possessed noun suffixes. However, in such cases the roots are stressed. Note that in (47b,c) we do not see stress attracted to the epenthetic vowel i in (47b) or e in (47c). However, in (47d) the vowel that precedes the NPN suffix is stressed. (47) Stressless roots with NPN suffixes a. yul ‘hair for birds’ nests’ (from -yu -s ‘head, hair’) b. nalim ‘priests’ (from -na -s ‘father’) c.
The second context for the deletion of input vowels in word formation arises when suffixes are added to words. Vowel deletion induced by suffixation can be exemplified by forms with derivational suffixes of the shape -we followed by the non-possessed noun suffix -t, followed by plural -m. One of this series of suffixes, the augmentative (seen in (58c), is a grammaticalized reflex of a Proto-Uto-Aztecan (PUA) adjective, *wï ‘big’. Thus the e of -we is probably an input vowel. But, when a plural suffix follows the sequence -we-t, this vowel can be lost.
Note that the NPN suffixes historically had a vowel *a; they 34 Phonology reconstruct in Uto-Aztecan as *-ta and in Cupan as *-ta, *-la, *-cha. As shown below, this vowel may be appear in some derivations. However, the constraint against an unstressed final short vowel apparently overrides the DEP constraint against epenthesis for forms like those in (66). 2. E PENTHESIS W ITH SUFFIXED NOUNS . As with verbs, we can be fairly sure that the vowels appearing before suffixes with certain nouns are epenthetic.
A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Jane H. Hill