By by Susan Smythe Kung.
This dissertation is a entire description of the grammar of Huehuetla Tepehua (HT), that is a member of the Totonacan language family members. HT is spoken through fewer than 1500 humans in and round the city of Huehuetla, Hidalgo, within the jap Sierra Madre mountains of the crucial Gulf Coast quarter of Mexico. This grammar starts off with an advent to the language, its language kin, and its atmosphere, in addition to a short heritage of my touch with the language. The grammar keeps with an outline of the phonology of HT, through morphosyntactic and syntactic description of all the significant elements of speech, together with verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and numbers; the grammar concludes with an outline of the sentence-level syntax. A compilation of interlinearized texts seems to be within the appendix. HT is a polysynthetic, head-marking language with advanced verbal morphology. Inflectional affixes contain either prefixes and suffixes for which a templatic development is hard to version. as well as inflectional and derivational morphology, HT verbs also are host to lots of aspectual derivational morphemes, every one of which alters the that means of the verb in a truly particular method. Plural marking on either nouns and verbs for any 3rd individual argument is not obligatory and made up our minds by means of an animacy hierarchy, that is extensively utilized to figure out verbal argument marking in a variety of morphosyntactic buildings. HT nouns are thoroughly unmarked for case, and likely nouns, together with kinship phrases and elements of an entire, are obligatorily possessed. The order of the key materials is pragmatically made up our minds, with an inclination in the direction of VSO order within the absence of pragmatic or contextual clues and SVO order in context-rich textual examples. HT is an under-documented moribund language that's at approaching danger of extinction in the subsequent two-to-three generations. hence, this dissertation is an enormous contribution not just to the sphere of linguistics, but in addition to the Tepehua those that may perhaps in the future have an interest within the language in their grandparents. Read more...
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Extra info for A descriptive grammar of Huehuetla Tepehua
Plural marking is not obligatory, though human nouns tend to be marked for number, while nonhuman nouns tend not to be. HT nouns are completely unmarked for case. Certain nouns, including kinship terms, honorifics, and parts of a whole are obligatorily possessed. 23 In addition to verbs and nouns, HT also has a separate class of both adjectives and adverbs, some of which are full words, but others of which are particles. HT is interesting from a phonological perspective for at least two reasons.
Papantla Totonac Misantla Totonac Apapantilla Totonac Northern Totonac Zihuateutla Totonac Upper Necaxa Totonac Etc. The HT speakers, as a whole, are unaware that Tepehua is spoken in and around the towns of Pisaflores or Tlachichilco, Veracruz. Both of these communities are separated from Huehuetla by both distance and mountain ranges so that the three groups have no contact. However, there is a community— Mecapalapa, Puebla—where both HT and Totonac are spoken. Mecapalapa is down-river from Huehuetla, about a day’s walk away.
Therefore, I continue to use the practical orthography in this current work. Table 3 is a conversion chart showing the HT phonemes in the characters of my practical orthography followed by IPA characters in parentheses only where the two orthographic systems differ. 32 Table 3: HT Practical Orthography Stop Glottalized Stop Nasal Bilabial Alveolar p p’ t d t’ m n s Fricative Affricate lh () tz (ts) tz’ (ts’) Glottalized Affricate Liquid PalatoAlveolar Palatal Velar Uvular k g k’ q Glottal 7 () x () ch (t) ch’ (t’) l Trill & Flap Approximant Lateral rr (r) r () w y (j) j (h) The characters used in my practical orthography come from five different sources: the typewriter keyboard, the IPA, the Americanist phonetic system, modern Spanish, and 16th century grammars of indigenous Mexican languages.
A descriptive grammar of Huehuetla Tepehua by by Susan Smythe Kung.